The image of Kurds fighting the Turkish state emerged time and again during the 20th century. Turkish nation building has been confronted by resolute resistance from Kurds, the majority of whom found themselves within the borders of Turkey after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire following the 1st World War. During the early years of the Turkish Republic, Kurds fought the Turkish state on numerous occasions, three rebellions Sheikh Said Rebellion , Mount Ararat and Dersim involved large segments of the Kurdish population. This paper focuses on the re-emergence of Kurdish political activism in Turkey and the articulation of Kurdish identity in the discourses of Kurdish nationalists since the s. Since then Kurdish nationalism has established itself as antagonistic to Turkish ‘state’ nationalism, actively challenging the states hegemonic discourse depicting Kurds as essentially Turkish. Turkey sought to level out their difference through oppression and assimilation.
The case for Kurdish statehood in Iraq
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Author: Cengiz Gunes. Date: Jan. From: International Journal of Kurdish Studies(Vol. 21, Issue ). Publisher: Kurdish Library. Document Type: Report.
This Note argues the legal and political case for a Kurdish state in Iraq. After some background on the Kurds, the Note begins by outlining the elements of self-determination and concludes that the Iraqi Kurds possess the right of self-determination. Next, the Note argues the Iraqi Kurds could secede from Iraq in a manner that gains international support and causes minimal disruption to the region through a process of “earned sovereignty. The newly formed state would be a secular democracy positioned in a strategically significant part of the world, could be a strong American ally, and would reaffirm the United States’ commitment to human rights.
Despite the calamity in Iraq since the United States invasion in , there is hope in the Kurdish region of Northern Iraq. Compared to the rest of the country, violence in the Kurdish region has been relatively minor. In many other parts of the country, by contrast, different ethnic groups living in close proximity to one another have engaged in high levels of sectarian violence.
The relative stability in the Kurdistan region has allowed the Iraqi Kurds to enjoy the country’s highest living standard and highest level of foreign investment. Over four thousand American troops have died, 6 and the total economic cost to the U. The case for Kurdish statehood in Iraq.
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Kurd , member of an ethnic and linguistic group living in the Taurus Mountains of southeastern Anatolia , the Zagros Mountains of western Iran , portions of northern Iraq , northeastern Syria , and western Armenia , and other adjacent areas. The Kurds are thought to number from 25 million to 30 million, including communities in Armenia, Georgia , Kazakhstan , Lebanon , Syria, and Europe, but sources for this information differ widely because of differing criteria of ethnicity , religion, and language; statistics may also be manipulated for political purposes.
The traditional Kurdish way of life was nomadic , revolving around sheep and goat herding throughout the Mesopotamian plains and the highlands of Turkey and Iran. Most Kurds practiced only marginal agriculture. The enforcement of national boundaries beginning after World War I —18 impeded the seasonal migrations of the flocks, forcing most of the Kurds to abandon their traditional ways for village life and settled farming; others entered nontraditional employment. The prehistory of the Kurds is poorly known, but their ancestors seem to have inhabited the same upland region for millennia.
Most Kurds are Sunni Muslims, and among them are many who practice Sufism and other mystical sects.
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The Russo-Turkish War of —78 was followed by the attempt of Sheikh Ubeydullah in — to found an independent Kurd principality under the protection of Turkey. The attempt, at first encouraged by the Porte , as a reply to the projected creation of an Armenian state under the suzerainty of Russia, collapsed after Ubeydullah’s raid into Persia, when history circumstances led the central government to reassert its supreme authority. Until the Russo-Turkish War of — there had been little hostile feeling between the Kurds and the Armenians, and as late as — the mountaineers of both races had co-existed fairly well together.
From this date right until the advent of Islam, the fate of the Kurds, who a Kurdish dynasty, that of the Ayyubids (), founded by the famous Saladin.
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